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Senior Investigator

Leonardo G. Cohen, M.D.

Human Cortical Physiology and Stroke Neurorehabilitation Section

Building 10 Room 7D54
Building 10 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda MD 20892-
Office: (301) 496-9782

Dr. Cohen received his MD from the University of Buenos Aires. He did his neurology residency at Georgetown University and received postdoctoral training in clinical neurophysiology at the Department of Neurology, University of California (Irvine) and in motor control and movement disorders at the Human Motor Control Section, NINDS. In 1998 he became chief of the Human Cortical Physiology Section, NINDS. He received the prestigious Humboldt award (1999) from the Republic of Germany and is an elected member of the American Neurological Association. Dr. Cohen's lab is interested in the mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the human central nervous system and in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for recovery of function based on the understanding of these mechanisms.

The goal of our activity is to understand the mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the human central nervous system (CNS) and to develop novel therapeutic approaches for recovery of function based on these advances. Our work has focused on the human motor system and on plastic changes taking place across sensory modalities for example in blind individuals (crossmodal plasticity). We have studied cortical reorganization in patients with CNS lesions in particular stroke and traumatic brain injury. In healthy volunteers, we studied cortical plasticity associated with deafferentation and motor skill learning.

We utilize different techniques in the context of well defined hypothesis-driven investigations including transcranial magnetic (TMS, video) and DC (tDCS) stimulation, fMRI, TMS in combination with fMRI, MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), PET scanning and magnetoencephalography (MEG). We are interested in the development of these techniques to help us to understand mechanisms of human plasticity and to modulate human brain processes. Our research protocols in healthy volunteers are geared to identify mechanisms of human neuroplasticity and to develop interventional approaches to enhance them when they play a beneficial role and down-regulate them when they are maladaptive. Advances in this understanding in healthy volunteers are subsequently applied to patients with neurological conditions like stroke in attempts to enhance neurorehabilitative processes. In blind individuals, we seek to understand the mechanisms underlying the remarkable compensatory processes involved in crossmodal plasticity, and to facilitate them using noninvasive techniques.

Our future goals are to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying plasticity of function in humans. On the basis of these insights, we are engaged in translational efforts to develop rational rehabilitative interventions to improve motor disability after stroke in particular using peripheral nerve stimulation, TMS and tDCS. In patients with severe hand paralysis, we use an MEG-based brain computer interface to control grasping motions of an orthosis attached to the paralyzed hand (video).

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Clinical Protocol

  • Human Cortical Physiology Section Repository Protocol ( 09-N-0156 )

  • Screening Protocol for Patients with Stroke ( 10-N-0012 )

  • Modulation of motor function by stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous system.  ( 07-N-0122 )

  • Neural Dynamics and Connectivity in Response Inhibition and Traumatic Brain Injury ( 10-N-0185 )

Staff Image
  • Micaela Baldivieso, B.A.

  • Marlene Boenstrup, M.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Ethan Buch, Ph.D.
    Staff Scientist

  • Brooke Elam, RN, BSN, CCRP
    Office Manager

  • Nathan Fishman, B.A.
    IRTA Fellow

  • Marta Gozzi, Ph.D.
    Program Coordinator

  • Sara Hussain, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Romain Quentin, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Etienne Sallard, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Sylvie Song, Ph.D.
    Postdoctoral Fellow

  • Sunbin Song, Ph.D.
    Senior Research Fellow

  • Ryan Thompson, B.S.
    IRTA Fellow

  • 1) Sandrini M, Cohen LG, Censor N. (2015)
  • Modulating reconsolidation: a link to causal systems-level dynamics of human memories.
  • Trends Cogn Sci
  • 2) Song S, Gotts SJ, Dayan E, Cohen LG (2015)
  • Practice Structure Improves Unconscious Transitional Memories by Increasing Synchrony in a Premotor Network
  • J Cogn Neurosci, 8, 1503-12
  • 3) Song S and LG Cohen (2014)
  • Practice and sleep form different aspects of skill
  • Nature Communications, 19;5, 3407
  • 4) Dayan E, Hamann JM, Averbeck BB, Cohen LG. (2014)
  • Brain structural substrates of reward dependence during behavioral performance
  • J Neurosci, 34, 16433-41
  • 5) Hamann JM, Dayan E, Hummel FC, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Baseline frontostriatal-limbic connectivity predicts reward-based memory formation
  • Hum Brain Mapp, 35, 5921-31
  • 6) Soekadar SR, Witkowski M, Birbaumer N, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity
  • Cereb Cortex, PMID: 24626608
  • 7) Censor N, Horovitz SG and LG Cohen (2014)
  • Interference with existing memories alters offline intrinsic functional brain connectivity.
  • Neuron, 81, 69-76
  • 8) Sandrini M, Censor N, Mishoe J, Cohen LG. (2013)
  • Causal role of prefrontal cortex in strengthening of episodic memories through reconsolidation.
  • Curr Biol, Nov 4;23(21), 2181-4
  • 9) Dayan E*, Censor N*, Buch ER*, Sandrini M and LG Cohen (2013)
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation: from physiology to network dynamics and back
  • Nature Neuroscience, 16, 638-644
  • 10) Soekadar S, Witkowsky M, Cossio EG, Birbaumer N, Robinson SE and LG Cohen (2013)
  • In vivo assessment of human brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents
  • Nature Communications, 4, 2032
  • 11) Carmena JM, Cohen LG. (2012)
  • Brain-machine interfaces and transcranial stimulation: future implications for directing functional movement and improving function after spinal injury in humans.
  • Handb Clin Neurol, 109, 435-44
  • 12) Buch ER, Shanechi AM, Fourkas AD, Weber C, Birbaumer N and LG Cohen (2012)
  • Parietofrontal integrity determines neural modulation associated with grasping imagery after stroke
  • Brain, Feb;135(Pt 2), 596-614
  • 14) Dayan E & LG Cohen (2011)
  • Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning
  • Neuron, 72, 443-454
  • 15) Dimyan MA and LG Cohen (2011)
  • Neuroplasticity in the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke.
  • Nature Reviews Neurology, 7, 76-85
  • 16) Censor N, Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2011)
  • Modification of existing human motor memories is enabled by primary cortical processing during memory reactivation.
  • Curr Biol, Sep 14;20(17), 1545-9
  • 17) Fritsch B, Reis J, Martinowich K, Schambra HM, Ji Y, Cohen LG, Lu B. (2010)
  • Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: potential implications for motor learning.
  • Neuron, 66(2), 198-204
  • 18) Celnik P, Paik NJ, Vandermeeren Y, Dimyan M, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Effects of combined peripheral nerve stimulation and brain polarization on performance of a motor sequence task after chronic stroke.
  • Stroke, 40(5), 1764-71
  • 19) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Stefan K, Hummel F, Olivier F and LG Cohen. (2008)
  • Memory formation in the motor cortex ipsilateral to a training hand
  • Cerebral Cortex, 18, 1395-1406
  • 20) Celnik P, Webster B, Glasser DM, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of action observation on physical training after stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(6), 1814-20
  • 21) Perez M and LG Cohen (2008)
  • Activity-dependent changes in motor cortical circuits ipsilateral to a moving hand
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5631-40
  • 22) Song S, Gotts SJ, Dayan E & Cohen LG (2015)
  • Practice structure improves unconscious transitional memories by increasing synchrony in a premotor network
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(8), 1503-12
  • 23) Dayan E, Averbeck BB, Richmond BJ, Cohen LG (2014)
  • Stochastic reinforcement benefits skill acquisition
  • Learn Memory, 21, 140-2
  • 24) Song S, Sharma N, Buch E and LG Cohen (2011)
  • White Matter Microstructural Correlates of Superior Long-term Skill Gained Implicitly under Randomized Practice
  • Cerebral Cortex, Jul;22(7), 1671-7
  • 25) Harris-Love ML, Morton SM, Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2011)
  • Mechanisms of short-term training-induced reaching improvement in severely hemiparetic stroke patients: a TMS study.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, Jun;25(5), 398-411
  • 26) Floel A, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Recovery of function in humans: cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments after stroke.
  • Neurobiol Dis., 37(2), 243-51
  • 27) Saposnik G, Mamdani M, Bayley M, Thorpe KE, Hall J, Cohen LG, Teasell R; EVREST Steering Committee; EVREST Study Group for the Stroke Outcome Research Canada Working Group. Int (2010)
  • Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exercises in STroke Rehabilitation (EVREST): rationale, design, and protocol of a pilot randomized clinical trial assessing the Wii gaming system.
  • J Stroke, 5(1), 47-51
  • 28) Farias da Guarda SN, Cohen LG, da Cunha Pinho M, Yamamoto FI, Marchiori PE, Scaff M, Conforto AB (2010)
  • Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Corticomotor Excitability After Chronic Cerebellar Infarcts
  • Cerebellum, Epub ahead of print
  • 29) Saposnik G, Teasell R, Mamdani M, Hall J, McIlroy W, Cheung D, Thorpe KE, Cohen LG, Bayley M; Stroke Outcome Research Canada (SORCan) Working Group (2010)
  • Effectiveness of virtual reality using wii gaming technology in stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial and proof of principle
  • Stroke, 41(7), 1477-84.
  • 30) Wang W, Collinger JL, Perez MA, Tyler-Kabara EC, Cohen LG, Birbaumer N, Brose SW, Schwartz AB, Boninger ML, Weber DJ. (2010)
  • Neural interface technology for rehabilitation: exploiting and promoting neuroplasticity.
  • Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am, 21(1), 157-78
  • 31) Sehm B, Perez MA, Xu B, Hidler J, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Functional neuroanatomy of mirroring during a unimanual force generation task.
  • Cereb Cortex, 20(1), 34-45
  • 32) Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of functional recovery mechanisms after stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 24(2), 125-35
  • 33) Conforto AB, Ferreiro KN, Tomasi C, dos Santos RL, Moreira VL, Marie SK, Baltieri SC, Scaff M, Cohen LG. (2010)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on motor function after subacute stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 24(3), 263-72
  • 34) Ragert P, Camus M, Vandermeeren Y, Dimyan MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Modulation of effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation applied over primary motor cortex (M1) by conditioning stimulation of the opposite M1.
  • J Neurophysiol. , 102(2), 766-73
  • 35) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Interhemispheric inhibition between primary motor cortices: what have we learned?
  • J Physiol. , 587(Pt 4), 725-6
  • 36) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • The corticospinal system and transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke.
  • Top Stroke Rehabil. , 16(4), 254-69
  • 37) Camus M, Ragert P, Vandermeeren Y, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Mechanisms controlling motor output to a transfer hand after learning a sequential pinch force skill with the opposite hand.
  • Clin Neurophysiol. , 120(10), 1859-65
  • 38) Hummel FC, Heise K, Celnik P, Floel A, Gerloff C, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex.
  • Neurobiol Aging, [Epub ahead of print]
  • 39) Reis J, Schambra HM, Cohen LG, Buch ER, Fritsch B, Zarahn E, Celnik PA, Krakauer JW. (2009)
  • Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation.
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci, 106(5), 1590-5
  • 40) Schaefer M, Xu B, Flor H, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Effects of different viewing perspectives on somatosensory activations during observation of touch.
  • Hum Brain Mapp. , 30(9), 2722-30
  • 41) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.
  • Cortex, 45(9), 1065-71
  • 42) Hummel FC, Steven B, Hoppe J, Heise K, Thomalla G, Cohen LG, Gerloff C. (2009)
  • Deficient intracortical inhibition (SICI) during movement preparation after chronic stroke.
  • Neurology. , 72(20), 1766-72
  • 43) Tanaka S, Honda M, Hanakawa T, Cohen LG. (2009)
  • Differential Contribution of the Supplementary Motor Area to Stabilization of a Procedural Motor Skill Acquired through Different Practice Schedules
  • Cereb Cortex, [Epub ahead of print]
  • 44) Kim JH, Lee HW, Cohen LG, Park KD, Choi KG. (2008)
  • Motor cortical excitability in patients with poststroke epilepsy.
  • Epilepsia, 49(1), 117-24
  • 45) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Stefan K, Hummel F, Olivier E, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Memory formation in the motor cortex ipsilateral to a training hand.
  • Cereb Cortex, 18(6), 1395-406
  • 46) Stefan K, Classen J, Celnik P, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Concurrent action observation modulates practice-induced motor memory formation.
  • Eur J Neurosci. , 27(3), 730-8
  • 47) Mazzocchio R, Meunier S, Ferrante S, Molteni F, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Cycling, a tool for locomotor recovery after motor lesions?
  • NeuroRehabilitation, 23(1), 67-80
  • 48) Perez MA, Tanaka S, Wise SP, Willingham DT, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Time-specific contribution of the supplementary motor area to intermanual transfer of procedural knowledge.
  • J Neurosci. , 28(39):, 9664-9.
  • 49) Conforto AB, Santos RL, Farias SN, Marie SK, Mangini N, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere in chronic stroke patients.
  • Clinics (Sao Paulo). , 63(6), 735-40
  • 50) Nielsen JB, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • The Olympic brain. Does corticospinal plasticity play a role in acquisition of skills required for high-performance sports?
  • J Physiol, 586(1), 65-70
  • 51) Celnik P, Webster B, Glasser DM, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Effects of action observation on physical training after stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(6), 1814-20
  • 52) Reis J, Swayne OB, Vandermeeren Y, Camus M, Dimyan MA, Harris-Love M, Perez MA, Ragert P, Rothwell JC, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.
  • J Physiol., 586(2), 325-51
  • 53) Dimyan MA, Dobkin BH, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Emerging subspecialties: neurorehabilitation: training neurologists to retrain the brain.
  • Neurology, 70(16), e52-4
  • 54) Ragert P, Vandermeeren Y, Camus M, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Improvement of spatial tactile acuity by transcranial direct current stimulation.
  • Clin Neurophysiol. , 119(4), 805-11
  • 55) Buch E, Weber C, Cohen LG, Braun C, Dimyan MA, Ard T, Mellinger J, Caria A, Soekadar S, Fourkas A, Birbaumer N. (2008)
  • Think to move: a neuromagnetic brain-computer interface (BCI) system for chronic stroke.
  • Stroke, 39(3), 910-7
  • 56) Perez MA, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Mechanisms underlying functional changes in the primary motor cortex ipsilateral to an active hand.
  • J Neurosci, 28(22), 5631-40
  • 57) Floel A, Hummel F, Duque J, Knecht S, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Influence of somatosensory input on interhemispheric interactions in patients with chronic stroke.
  • Neurorehabil Neural Repair., 22(5), 477-85
  • 58) Reis J, Robertson E, Krakauer JW, Rothwell J, Marshall L, Gerloff C, Wassermann E, Pascual-Leone A, Hummel F, Celnik PA, Classen J, Floel A, Ziemann U, Paulus W, Siebner HR, Born J, Cohen LG. (2008)
  • Consensus: "Can tDCS and TMS enhance motor learning and memory formation?"
  • Brain Stimulat, 1(4), 363-369
  • 59) Perez M, Tanaka S, Wise S, Sadato N, Tanabe HC, Willingham DT and LG Cohen. (2007)
  • Neural substrates underlying intermanual transfer of a newly acquired motor skill
  • Current Biology, 17, 1896-1902
  • 60) Celnik P, Hummel F, Harris-Love M, Wolk R, Cohen LG. (2007)
  • Somatosensory stimulation enhances the effects of training functional hand tasks in patients with chronic stroke.
  • Arch Phys Med Rehabil. , 88(11), 1369-76
  • 61) Perez M, Wise SP, Willingham DT and LG Cohen (2007)
  • Neurophyisological mechanisms involved in transfer of procedural knowledge
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1045-53
  • 62) Duque J, Murase N, Celnik P, Hummel F, Harris-Love M, Mazzocchio R, Olivier E and LG Cohen (2007)
  • Intermanual differences in movement-related interhemispheric inhibition
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 204-13
  • 63) Hummel F, Voller B, Celnik P, Floel A, Giraux P, Gerloff C and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Effects of cortical stimulation on reaction time in chronic stroke
  • BMC Neuroscience, 7, 73-7
  • 64) Sawaki L, Wu C W-H, Kaelin-Lang A and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Effects of somatosensory stimulation on use-dependent plasticity in chronic stroke
  • Stroke, 37, 246-7
  • 65) Wu C W-H, Seo H-J and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Influence of somatosensory stimulation on paretic hand function in chronic stroke
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 351-7
  • 66) Mazzocchio R, Kitago T, Liuggi G, Wolpaw JR and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Plastic changes in the human H reflex at rest following skillful cycling training
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 1682-91
  • 67) Hummel F and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation. A novel strategy to enhance neurorehabilitation after stroke?
  • Lancet Neurology , 5, 707-12
  • 68) Kaelin-Lang A, Sawaki L and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Role of voluntary drive in encoding an elementary motor memory
  • Journal of Neurophysiology, 93, 1099-1103
  • 69) Gandiga P, Hummel F and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS): a tool for double blind sham-controlled clinical studies in brain stimulation
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 845-50
  • 70) Hidler J, Hodics T, Xu B, Dobkin B and LG Cohen (2006)
  • MR compatible force sensing system for real-time monitoring of wrist moments during fMRI testing
  • Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 155, 300-7
  • 71) Lotze MP, Grodd W, Rodden FA, Gut E, Schonle P-W, Kardatzki B and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Neuroimaging correlates of recovery of motor function in traumatic brain injury patients
  • Neurorehabiiltation and Neural Repair, 20, 14-23
  • 72) P, Stefan K, Hummel F, Duque J, Classen J and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Encoding a motor memory in the older adult by action observation
  • Neuroimage, 29, 677-684
  • 73) Voller B, Flöel A, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Wu, CW and LG Cohen (2006)
  • Contralateral hand anesthesia transiently improves post-stroke sensory deficits
  • Annals of Neurology, 59, 385-7
  • 74) Voller B, Flöel A, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Wu, CW and LG Cohen (2005)
  • Contralateral hand anesthesia transiently improves post-stroke sensory deficits
  • Annals of Neurology
  • 75) Stefan K, Cohen LG, Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Celnik P, Sawaki P, Ungerleider L and J Classen (2005)
  • Formation of a motor memory by action observation
  • Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 9339-9346
  • 76) Floel A, Breitenstein C, Hummel F, Celnik P, Gingert C, Sawaki L, Knecht S and LG. Cohen (2005)
  • Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory
  • Annals of Neurology , 58, 121-130
  • 77) Wu C W-H, van Gelderen P, Hanakawa T, Yaseen Z and LG. Cohen (2005)
  • Enduring representational plasticity after somatosensory stimulation
  • Neuroimage, 27, 872-884
  • 78) Hummel F and LG Cohen. (2005)
  • Improvement of motor function with noninvasive cortical stimulation in a patient with chronic stroke
  • Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair , 19, 14-19
  • 79) Van Gelderen P, Wu C, Cohen LG, Hallett M and JH Duyn (2005)
  • Functional resolution and reproducibility of BOLD and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging , 54, 569-76
  • 80) Duque J, Mazzocchio R, Dambrosia J, Murase N, Olivier E and LG Cohen. (2005)
  • Kinematically specific interhemispheric inhibition operating in the process of generation of a voluntary movement.
  • Cerebral Cortex, 15, 588-593
  • 81) Lee HW, Seo HJ, Cohen LG, Bagic A and WH Theodore (2005)
  • Cortical excitability during prolonged antiepileptic drug treatment and drug withdrawal
  • Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 1105-12
  • 82) Hummel F, Celnik P, Giraux P, Floel A, Wu W-H, Gerloff C and LG Cohen (2005)
  • Effects of noninvasive cortical stimulation on skilled motor function in chronic stroke
  • Brain, 128, 490-499
  • 83) Baron J-C, Cohen LG, Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Johansen-Berg H, Loubinoux I, Marshall RS, and NS Ward (Writing Committee). (2004)
  • Neuroimaging in stroke recovery: a position paper from the First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery Cerebrovasc Diseases
  • Cerebrovasc Diseases , 18, 260-267
  • 84) Floel A, Nagorsen U, Werhahn KJ, Ravindran S, Birbaumer N, Knecht S and LG Cohen. (2004)
  • Influence of somatosensory input on motor function in patients with chronic stroke
  • Ann Neurol , 56, 206-12
  • 85) Pietrini P, Furey ML, Ricciardi E, Gobbini MI, Wu C, Cohen LG, Guazzelli M and JV Haxby (2004)
  • Supramodal category-related representation of objects in the ventral visual pathway of the human brain.
  • PNAS , 101, 5658-5663
  • 86) Fridman EA, Hanakawa T, Chung M, Leiguarda RC and Cohen LG (2004)
  • Reorganization of human premotor cortex after stroke recovery.
  • Brain , 127, 747-758
  • 87) Morgen K, Kadom N, Sawaki L, Tessitori A, Ohayon J, Frank J, McFarland H, Martin R and LG Cohen (2004)
  • ) Kinematic specificity of cortical reorganization associated with motor training.
  • Neuroimage , 21, 1182-7
  • 88) Wittenberg GF, Werhahn KJ, Wassermann EM, Herscovitch P and LG Cohen. (2004)
  • Functional connectivity between somatosensory and visual cortex in early blind humans.
  • Eur J Neurosci , 20, 1923-1927
  • 89) Morgen K, Kadom N, Sawaki L, Tessitori A, Ohayon J, McFarland H, Frank J, Martin R and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Training-dependent plasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis
  • Brain, 127, 2506-2517
  • 90) Plewnia C, Hoppe J, Cohen LG and C Gerloff (2004)
  • Improved motor skill acquisition after selective stimulation of central norepinephrine
  • Neurology , 62, 2124-2126
  • 91) Karim AA, Kammer T, Lotze M, Hinterberger T, Godde B, Friedel E, Cohen LG and N Birbaumer (2004)
  • Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the regulation of cortical excitability
  • J Psychophysiol , 17, 158
  • 92) Kitago T, Mazzocchio R, Liuzzi G and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Modulation of H-reflex excitability by titanic stimulation.
  • Clin Neurophysiol , 115, 858-61
  • 93) Werhahn KJ, Conforto AB, Kadom N, Hallett M and LG Cohen. (2004)
  • Contribution of the ipsilateral motor cortex to functional recovery after chronic stroke.
  • Ann Neurol , 54, 464-72
  • 94) Shih JJ and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Cortical reorganization in the human brain. How the old dog learns depends on the trick
  • Neurology (Editorial) , 68, 1772-3
  • 95) Butefisch CM, Khurana V, Kopylev L and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Enhancing encoding of a motor memory in the primary motor cortex by cortical stimulation.
  • Journal of Neurophysiology , 91, 2110-16
  • 96) Floel A, Poeppel D, Buffalo EA, Braun A, Wu C W-H, Seo HJ, Stefan K, Knecht S and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Prefrontal cortex asymmetry for memory encoding of words and abstract shapes.
  • Cerebral Cortex , 14, 404-9
  • 97) Ward N and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Mechanisms underlying recovery of motor function after stroke
  • Archives of Neurology (Neurological Review), 61, 1830-1831
  • 98) Murase N, Duque J, Mazzocchio R and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Influence of interhemispheric interactions on motor function in chronic subcortical stroke
  • Ann Neurol, 55, 400-9
  • 99) Amedi A, Floel A, Knetch S, Zohary E and LG Cohen (2004)
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the occipital pole interferes with verbal processing in blind subjects
  • Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1266-1270
  • 100) Amedi A, Floel A, Knecht S, Zohari E and LG Cohen. (2004)
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the occipital pole interferes with verbal processing in blind subjects
  • Nature Neuroscience , 7, 1266-1270
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