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Senior Investigator

Stephen Robert Ikeda, M.D., Ph.D.

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NIAAA

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NIAAA
Park Building Room 150
MSC 8115
Bethesda MD 20892-8115
Office: (301) 443-2807
Lab: (301) 443-2807
Fax: (301) 480-1734
sikeda@mail.nih.gov

Stephen R. Ikeda received his B.S. in Chemistry and Zoology from the George Washington University. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in 1980 and 1983, respectively, where he worked under the direction of Dr. Edson X. Albuquerque on the pharmacology of neuromuscular transmission. Dr. Ikeda did postdoctoral work at the NIH in the laboratory of Dr. Forrest F. Weight in the NIAAA. Work during this time his work focused on the biophysical properties and modulation of neuronal voltage-gated ion channels. Following postdoctoral training, he joined the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, advancing to the rank of tenured Associate Professor before joining the Guthrie Research Institute in Sayre, PA as a Senior Scientist and Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Physiology. At Guthrie, Dr. Ikeda also served as Director of the Guthrie cDNA Resource Center and held an adjunct appointment as Research Professor of Pharmacology, SUNY Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, New York. He returned to the NIAAA in 2002 as a Senior Investigator and Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular Physiology. Dr. Ikeda's current research focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying signaling pathways linking G-protein coupled receptors to neuronal voltage-gated ion channels.



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  • 1) Ward, Y., Spinelli, B., Quon, M.J., Chen, H., Ikeda, S.R. and Kelly, K. (2004)
  • Phosphorylation of critical serine residues in Gem separates cytoskeletal functions from down-regulation of calcium channel activity
  • Mol. Cell. Biol, 24, 651–661
  • 2) Guo, J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2004)
  • Endocannabinoids modulate N-type calcium channels and G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels via CB1 cannabinoid receptors heterologously expressed in mammalian neurons
  • Mol. Pharmacol, In Press
  • 3) Ikeda, S.R. (2004)
  • Expression of G protein signaling components in adult mammalian neurons by microinjection
  • Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 259: Receptor Signal Transduction Protocols 2nd ed. , 167–181
  • 4) Ruiz-Velasco, V. and Ikeda, S.R. (2003)
  • A splice variant of the G protein ƒÒ3-subunit implicated in disease states does not modulation ion channels
  • Physiol. Genomics , 13, 85-95
  • 5) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2003)
  • Specificity of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 coupling to G proteins
  • Mol. Pharmacol, 63, 183–191
  • 6) Ikeda, S.R. and Kammermeier, P.J. (2002)
  • M-current mystery messenger revealed?
  • Neuron , 35, 411–412
  • 7) Grünewald, S., Schupp, B.J., Ikeda, S.R., Kuner, R., Steigerwald, F., Kornau, H.-C., and Köhr ,G. (2002)
  • Importance of the GABAB receptor C-termini for G-protein coupling
  • Mol. Pharmacol, 61, 1070–1080
  • 8) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2002)
  • Desensitization of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors is mediated by a non-conventional PKC
  • J. Neurophysiol, 87, 1669–1676
  • 9) Ruiz-Velasco, V., Ikeda, S.R. and Puhl, H.L. (2002)
  • Cloning, tissue distribution and functional expression of the human G protein ƒÒ4 subunit
  • Physiol. Genomics , 8, 41¡V50
  • 10) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2002)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptor expression in rat superior cervical ganglion
  • Neurosci. Lett, 330, 260–264
  • 11) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • Analysis of two calcium current inhibitory pathways in sympathetic neurons of the rat
  • Experimental Biology
  • 12) Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • Signal transduction. Calcium channels–link locally, act globally
  • Science , 294, 318–319
  • 13) Ruiz-Velasco, V. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • Functional expression of green fluorescent protein fused to G-protein ƒÒ and ƒ× subunits in adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Physiology , 537, 679¡V692
  • 14) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • A role of Seven in Absentia Homolog (Siah1a) in metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling
  • BMC Neuroscience , 2, 15
  • 15) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • Differential regulation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channel kinetics by distinct domains of RGS8
  • J. Physiology , 535, 335–347
  • 16) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • Heterologous expression of the human G-protein 3-s subunit splice variant does not result in ion channel modulation in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • Experimental Biology
  • 17) Puhl, H.L., Aronstam, R.S. and Ikeda, S.R. (2001)
  • The Guthrie cDNA resource center
  • Guthrie Journal , 70, 58–64
  • 18) Park, K.S., Jeong, S.W., Cha, S.K., Lee, B.S., Kong, I.D., Ikeda, S.R., and Lee, J.W. (2001)
  • Modulation of N-type Ca2+ currents by A1-adenosine receptor activation in male rat pelvic ganglion neurons
  • J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap, 299, 501–508
  • 19) Ruiz-Velasco, V. and Ikeda, S.R. (2000)
  • Various combinations of G-protein ƒÒƒ× subunits produce voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • J. Neuroscience , 20, 2183¡V2191
  • 20) Kammermeier, P.J., Ruiz-Velasco, V. and Ikeda, S.R. (2000)
  • Voltage-dependent calcium current inhibition by muscarinic agonists in rat sympathetic neurons requires both GƒÑq and GƒÒƒ×
  • J. Neuroscience , 20, 5623¡V5629
  • 21) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (2000)
  • Effect of G-protein heterotrimer composition on coupling of neurotransmitter receptors to N-type Ca2+ channel modulation in sympathetic neurons
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, 97, 907–912
  • 22) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (2000)
  • Endogenous RGS proteins modify N-type calcium channel modulation in rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Neuroscience , 20, 4489–4496
  • 23) Kammermeier, P.J., Xiao, B., Tu, J.C., Worley, P.F. and Ikeda, S.R. (2000)
  • A functional role for the interaction of Homer proteins with group I mGluRs
  • J. Neuroscience , 20, 7238–7245
  • 24) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Contribution of endogenous regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins to ion channel modulation in rat sympathetic neurons
  • Biophysics J. , 76, A344
  • 25) Ikeda, S.R. and Jeong, S.W. (1999)
  • Endogenous regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins influence GIRK current activation kinetics in rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 25, 1244
  • 26) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Involvement of Rho family proteins in voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels via M3 muscarinic receptors
  • Biophysics J., 76, A344
  • 27) Jeong, S.W., J.W. Lee and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Heterologously expressed human metabotropic P2 purinoceptors mediate modulation of calcium and M-currents
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 25, 2250
  • 28) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors produce voltage-dependent and –independent N-type calcium channel inhibition via different G protein subunits
  • Biophysics J. , 76, A343
  • 29) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Mutational analysis of G-protein ƒÒƒ× subunit interactions with N-type calcium channels in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 25, 2250
  • 30) Kammermeier, P.J., Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Voltage dependent and independent calcium current inhibition by muscarinic agonists in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 25, 2249
  • 31) Jeong, S.W., Ikeda, S.R. and Wurster, R.D. (1999)
  • Activation of various G-protein coupled receptors modulates Ca2+ channel currents via PTX-sensitive and voltage-dependent pathways in rat intracardiac neurons
  • J. Autonomic Nervous System , 76, 68–74
  • 32) Ikeda, S.R., Jeong, S.W., Kammermeier, P.J., Ruiz-Velasco, V. and King, M.M. (1999)
  • Heterologous expression of a green fluorescent protein–pertussis toxin S1 subunit fusion construct disrupts calcium channel modulation in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • Neurosci. Lett, 271, 163–166
  • 33) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Sequestration of GƒÒƒ× subunits by different G protein ƒÑ subunits blocks voltage-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels in rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Neuroscience , 19, 4755¡V4761
  • 34) Ikeda, S.R. and Dunlap, K. (1999)
  • Voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels: role of G protein subunits
  • . Advances in Second Messenger and Phosphoprotein Research , 33, 131–151
  • 35) Kammermeier, P.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1999)
  • Expression of RGS2 alters the coupling of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a to M-type K+ and N-type Ca2+ channels
  • Neuron, 22, 819–829
  • 36) King, M.M., Jeong, S.W., Ruiz-Velasco, V.J., Kammermeier, P.J., Williams, C.L. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Heterologous expression of a pertussis toxin S1 subunit fusion construct disrupts calcium channel modulation in rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 24, 1574
  • 37) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • G protein ƒÑ-subunit GZƒÑ couples neurotransmitter receptors to ion channels in sympathetic neurons
  • Neuron, 21, 1201¡V1212
  • 38) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • The G-protein ƒÑ-subunit, GƒÑZ is capable of coupling neurotransmitter receptors of N-type calcium channels in sympathetic neurons
  • Biophysics J., 74, A104
  • 39) Jeong, S.W., Aronstam, R.S. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Pertussis toxin-insensitive mutants of G-protein, GƒÑo/iƒnƒnreconstitute voltage-dependent inhibition of calcium currents in rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. , 24, 1574
  • 40) Kammermeier, P.J., Xiao, B., Tu, J., Worley, P.F. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Homer alters metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibition of calcium current
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 24, 1575
  • 41) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Multiple combinations of G-protein ƒÒƒ× subunits produce voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 24, 1574
  • 42) Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Expression of RGS2 modifies the coupling of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) to N-type calcium and M-type potassium channels
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. , 24, 1574
  • 43) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Heterologous expression of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels of rat sympathetic neurons
  • Biophysics J. , 74, A209
  • 44) Ruiz-Velasco, V.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Heterologous expression and coupling of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels in adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Physiol, 513, 761–773
  • 45) Pan, X., Ikeda, S.R. and Lewis, D.L. (1998)
  • SR141716A acts as an inverse agonist to increase neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents by reversal of tonic CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity
  • Mol. Pharmacol, 54, 1064–1072
  • 46) Dunlap, K. and Ikeda, S.R. (1998)
  • Receptor-mediated pathways that modulate calcium channels
  • Seminars in Neuroscience , 9, 198–208
  • 47) Chen, J., Ikeda, S.R., Lang, W. and Wei, X. (1997)
  • Molecular cloning of a novel, putative tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel from dog nodose ganglion neurons
  • Biophysics J. , 72, A363
  • 48) Ikeda, S.R. (1997)
  • Heterologous expression of receptors and signaling proteins in adult mammalian sympathetic neurons by microinjection
  • Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 83: Receptor Signal Transduction Protocols (Ed. Challis, R.A.J.), 191–202
  • 49) Ikeda, S.R. (1997)
  • Heterologous expression & functional coupling of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors to N-type Ca2+ channels of adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 23, 1184
  • 50) Jeong, S.W. and Ikeda, S.R. (1997)
  • Overexpression of various G protein ƒÑ-subunits attenuates norepinephrine-mediated modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels in rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 23, 1183
  • 51) Lewis, D.L. and Ikeda, S.R. (1997)
  • Inhibition of M-type K+ and N-type Ca2+ channels by the human gonadotropin–releasing hormone receptor heterologously expressed in adult neurons
  • Neuroendocrinology, 66, 235–245
  • 52) Chen, J., Ikeda, S.R., Lang, W., Isales, C.M. and Wei, X. (1997)
  • Molecular cloning of a novel, putative tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel from dog nodose ganglion neurons
  • Gene , 202, 7–14
  • 53) Hollins, B. and Ikeda, S.R. (1997)
  • Heterologous expression of a P2x-purinoceptor in rat chromaffin cells detects vesicular ATP release
  • J. Neurophysiol., 78, 3069–3076
  • 54) Ikeda, S.R. (1996)
  • Voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels by G protein Beta-subunits
  • Nature , 380, 255–258
  • 55) Hollins, B. and Ikeda, S.R. (1996)
  • Inward currents underlying action potentials in rat adrenal chromaffin cells
  • J. Neurophysiol, 76, 1195–1211
  • 56) Lewis, D.L. and Ikeda, S.R. (1996)
  • The human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor inhibits M-type K+ and N-type Ca2+ currents in a neuronal expression system
  • Soc. Neurosci
  • 57) Cohen, D.P., Ikeda, S.R. and Lewis, D.L. (1996)
  • NPY and CGRP modulate voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in mature female rat paracervical ganglion neurons
  • J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig, 3, 342–349
  • 58) Pan, X., Ikeda, S.R. and Lewis, D.L. (1996)
  • The rat brain cannabinoid receptor modulates N-type Ca2+ channels in a neuronal expression system
  • Mol. Pharmacol, 49, 707–714
  • 59) Hollins, B. and Ikeda, S.R. (1995)
  • Simultaneous detection of quantal ATP and catecholamine release from isolated rat adrenal chromaffin cells
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 21, 335
  • 60) Korn, S.J., Zhu, Y., Lewis, D.L. and Ikeda, S.R. (1995)
  • Permeation of sodium through a cloned potassium channel (Kv2.1) eliminates TEA sensitivity
  • Biophysical J. , 68, A264
  • 61) Zhu, Y., Zboran, E. and Ikeda, S.R. (1995)
  • Phenotype-specific expression of T-type calcium channels in neurons of the major pelvic ganglion of the adult male rat
  • J. Physiology , 489, 363–375
  • 62) Korn, S.J. and Ikeda, S.R. (1995)
  • Permeation selectivity by competition in a delayed rectifier potassium channel
  • Science, 269, 410–412
  • 63) Ikeda, S.R., Lovinger, D.M., McCool, B.A. and Lewis, D.L. (1995)
  • Heterologous expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors in adult rat sympathetic neurons: subtype specific coupling to ion channels
  • Neuron, 14, 1029–1038
  • 64) Ikeda, S.R. and Korn, S.J. (1995)
  • Influence of permeating ion on potassium channel block by external tetraethylammonium
  • J. Physiology , 486, 267–272
  • 65) Barman, S.A. and Ikeda, S.R. (1995)
  • Phorbol ester potentiation of canine pulmonary vasoreactivity to histamine
  • . J. Appl. Physiology , 79, 102–106
  • 66) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1994)
  • VIP inhibits N-type Ca2+ channels of sympathetic neurones via a pertussis toxin-insensitive but cholera toxin-sensitive pathway
  • Neuron, 13, 657–669
  • 67) Ikeda, S.R., Lovinger, D.M., McCool, B.A. and Lewis, D.L. (1994)
  • Heterologous expression and functional coupling of a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) to N-type CA2+ channels in adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 20, 904
  • 68) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1994)
  • VIP inhibits N-type Ca2+ channels of sympathetic neurons via a GsƒÑ-dependent pathway
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 20, 902
  • 69) Ikeda, S.R. and Barman, S.A. (1994)
  • Calcium channel currents in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells of dog pulmonary arteries
  • FASEB J. , 8, A149
  • 70) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1994)
  • Modulation of Ca2+ channel currents by protein kinase C in adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Neurophysiology, 72, 1549–1560
  • 71) Lewis, D.L., Soler, F., Zühlke, R.D., Joho, R.H. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • Heterologous expression of the human potassium channel Kv2.1 in clonal mammalian cells by direct cytoplasmic microinjection of cRNA
  • Biophysical J., 64, A196
  • 72) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • Adenosine modulates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in adult rat sympathetic neurons
  • J. Neurophysiology, 70, 610–620
  • 73) Hollins, B. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • Use of the rat adrenal chromaffin cell for the study of adrenergic excitation-secretion coupling
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 19, 1331
  • 74) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • 2,3–butanedione monoxime blockade of Ca2+ currents in adult rat sympathetic neurons does not involve “chemical phosphatase” activity
  • Neuroscience Letters, 155, 24–28
  • 75) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • Adenosine modulates voltage-gated calcium channels in adult rat sympathetic neurons via a guanine nucleotide binding protein
  • Biophysical J. , 64, A204
  • 76) Zhu, Y. and Ikeda, S.R. (1993)
  • Anomalous permeation of sodium ions through a putative potassium channel in rat superior cervical ganglion neurones.
  • J. Physiology , 468, 441–461
  • 77) Ikeda, S.R. (1992)
  • Prostaglandin modulation of Ca2+ channels in rat sympathetic neurones is mediated by guanine nucleotide binding proteins
  • J. Physiology , 458, 339–359
  • 78) Carrier, G.O. and Ikeda, S.R. (1992)
  • TTX-sensitive Na+ channels and Ca2+ channels of the L- and N-type underlie the inward current in acutely dispersed coeliac-mesenteric ganglia neurons of adult rats
  • Pflügers Archiv, 421, 7-16
  • 79) Carrier, G.O. and Ikeda, S.R. (1992)
  • K+ currents of adult rat coeliac–superior mesenteric ganglia neurons
  • Biophysical J., 61, A381
  • 80) Ikeda, S.R. (1992)
  • Prostaglandin E2 modulates an “N-type” calcium current in adult rat sympathetic neurons via a guanine nucleotide binding protein
  • Biophysical J., 61, A398
  • 81) Ikeda, S.R., Solare, F., Zühlke, R., Joho, R. and Lewis, D.L. (1992)
  • Heterologous expression of the human potassium channel Kv2.1 in clonal mammalian cells by direct cytoplasmic microinjection of cRNA
  • Pflügers Archiv, 422, 201-203
  • 82) Ikeda, S.R. (1991)
  • Double-pulse calcium channel current facilitation in adult rat sympathetic neurones
  • Biophysical J., 59, 271a
  • 83) Ikeda, S.R. (1991)
  • Double-pulse calcium channel current facilitation in adult rat sympathetic neurones
  • Biophysical J., 59, 271a
  • 84) Ikeda, S.R. (1991)
  • Double-pulse calcium channel current facilitation in adult rat sympathetic neurones
  • J. Physiology , 439, 181-214
  • 85) Ikeda, S.R. (1991)
  • Double-pulse calcium channel current facilitation in adult rat sympathetic neurones
  • J. Physiology , 439, 181-214
  • 86) Lewis, D.L., Ikeda, S.R., Aryee, D. and Joho, R. (1991)
  • of an inwardly rectifying K+ channel from rat basophilic leukemia cell mRNA in Xenopus oocytes
  • FEBS Letters , 290, 17-21
  • 87) Ikeda, S.R. and Schofield, G.G. (1989)
  • Somatostatin blocks a calcium current in rat sympathetic ganglion neurones.
  • J. Physiology , 409, 221-240
  • 88) Schofield, G.G. and Ikeda, S.R. (1989)
  • Potassium currents of acutely isolated adult rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • Brain Research , 485, 205-214
  • 89) Ikeda, S.R. (1989)
  • Prostaglandin E2 inhibits a calcium current in adult rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 15, 1149
  • 90) Ikeda, S.R. and Schofield, G.G. (1989)
  • Somatostatin cyclic octapeptide analogs which preferentially bind to SOMa receptors block a calcium current in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons
  • Neurosci Letts , 96, 283–288
  • 91) Schofield, G.G. and Ikeda, S.R. (1988)
  • Neuropeptide Y inhibits a calcium current in C cells of bullfrog sympathetic ganglia
  • European J. Pharmacol., 151, 131-134
  • 92) Ikeda, S.R., Schofield, G.G. and Weight, F.F. (1988)
  • Voltage-clamp models for the study of acute and chronic effects of ethanol on ionic currents in adult mammalian neurons.
  • Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse, 7, 91-93
  • 93) Schofield, G.G. and Ikeda, S.R. (1988)
  • Sodium and calcium currents of acutely isolated adult rat superior cervical ganglion neurons.
  • Pflügers Archiv , 411, 481–490
  • 94) Ikeda, S.R., Schofield, G.G. and Weight, F.F. (1987)
  • Somatostatin blocks a calcium current in acutely isolated adult rat superior cervical ganglion neurons.
  • Neurosci Letts , 18, 123–128
  • 95) Ikeda, S.R. and Schofield, G.G. (1987)
  • Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current of rat nodose neurones: Monovalent cation selectivity and divalent cation block.
  • J. Physiology , 389, 255–270
  • 96) Ikeda, S.R., Schofield, G.G. and Weight, F.F. (1986)
  • Na+ and Ca++ currents of acutely isolated adult rat nodose ganglion cells.
  • J. Neurophysiology , 55, 527–539
  • 97) Ikeda, S.R., Aronstam, R.S., Daly, J.W., Aracava, Y. and Albuquerque, E.X. (1984)
  • Interactions of bupivacaine with ionic channels of the nicotinic receptor: electrophysiological and biochemical studies.
  • Mol. Pharmacol., 26, 293–303
  • 98) Aracava, Y., Ikeda, S.R., Daly, J.W., Brookes, N. and Albuquerque, E.X. (1984)
  • Interactions of bupivacaine with ionic channels of the nicotinic receptor: analysis of single channel currents
  • Mol. Pharmacol., 26, 304–313
  • 99) Akaike, A., Ikeda, S.R., Brookes, N., Pascuzzo, G. Rickett, D.L. and Albuquerque, E.X. (1984)
  • The nature of the interactions of pyridostigmine with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ionic channel complex: II. Patch clamp studies
  • Mol. Pharmacol., 25, 102–112
  • 100) Akaike, A., Ikeda, S.R., Viana, G.B., Rickett, D., Pascuzzo, G. and Albuquerque, E.X. (1983)
  • Direct actions of pyridostigmine (PYR) on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ionic channel complex of rat myoball
  • Fed. Proc., 42, 991
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